Latest Video: Why India’s Upper Caste Minority is Scared of a Caste Census
1. Barrier, N. Gerald, and Kenneth Jones, eds. “Religious Identity and the Indian Census.” In The Census in British India: New Perspectives. New Delhi: Manohar, 1981. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-asian-studies/article/abs/census-in-british-india-new-perspectives-edited-by-n-gerald-barrier-new-delhi-manohar-1981-xiv-222-pp-appendixes-18-distributed-by-south-asia-books/304CFFA4005C2B6BB10AB9246C526688.
2. Chakrabarti, Ajachi. “The Modi Government’s Discredited Excuses for Dodging a Caste Census.” The Caravan, 2021. https://caravanmagazine.in/commentary/caste-census-2021-secc-obc.
3. Deshpande, Satish. “Caste and Castelessness: Towards a Biography of the ‘General Category.’” Economic and Political Weekly 48, no. 15 (2013): 32–39. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23527121.
4. Galanter, Marc. “Who Are the Other Backward Classes?: An Introduction to a Constitutional Puzzle.” Economic and Political Weekly 13, no. 43/44 (1978): 1812–28. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4367065.
5. Gupta, Pranav, and Sanjay Kumar. “Where Did the BJP Get Its Votes from in 2019?” Livemint, 2019. https://www.livemint.com/politics/news/where-did-the-bjp-get-its-votes-from-in-2019-1559547933995.html.
6. Jaffrelot, Christophe. India’s Silent Revolution: The Rise of the Lower Castes in North India. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003. https://cup.columbia.edu/book/indias-silent-revolution/9780231127868.
7. Mandal, Dilip. “From Congress to BJP, Everybody Is Afraid of OBC Data.” ThePrint, 2018. https://theprint.in/opinion/from-congress-to-bjp-everybody-is-afraid-of-obc-data/150070/.
8. Mishra, Jyoti, Vibha Attri, and Nitin Mehta. “The Bahujan Vote.” Social Sciences Research Journal 22, no. 2 (2014). https://www.lokniti.org/media/upload_files/PU-The-Bahujan-Vote.pdf.
9. Omvedt, Gail. “Caste in the Census.” Social Change 40, no. 4 (2010): 405–14. https://doi.org/10.1177/004908571004000401.
10. Rai, Santosh Kumar. “Muslim Weavers’ Politics in Early 20th Century Northern India.” Economic and Political Weekly, 2012, 7–8. https://www.epw.in/journal/2012/15/special-articles/muslim-weavers-politics-early-20th-century-northern-india.html.
11. Ram, Kanshi. The Chamcha Age: Era of the Stooges, 1982. https://archive.org/details/TheChamchaAge.
12. Sattanathan, A.N. “Report of the Backward Classes Commission,” 1970. https://www.worldcat.org/title/report-of-the-backward-classes-commission-tamil-nadu-1970/oclc/6148061.
13. Sundar, Nandini. “Caste as Census Category: Implications for Sociology.” Current Sociology 48, no. 3 (2000): 111–26. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011392100048003008.
14. Vijayanunni, M, Satish Deshpande, Sukhadeo Thorat, Yogendra Yadav, S Japhet, and Ravi Varma Kumar. “Caste Census: Senseless Separation.” The Hindu, 2010, sec. Comment. https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/Caste-census-senseless-separation/article15912601.ece.
15. Waterfield, Henry. “Memorandum on the Census of British India of 1871-72.” Statistics and Commerce Department, India Office, 1872. https://jstor.org/stable/saoa.crl.25057647.
Past Continuous is a 6-part video series about how the past affects the present we live in.. Each episode looks at a social or political issue affecting India today and traces its roots in history.
1. Does the Indian Middle Class Really Exist?
2. How the “General Category” Became Modern India’s Greatest Scam
3. Why India Became Independent But Its Women Did Not
4. British Rule Made India Poor. So Why Did It Make Some Indians Crazy Rich?
5. How Indian Politics Uses Hindu vs Muslim To Cover Up Caste
6. How Brahmins and the British Created India’s Hindu Majority
Does The Indian Middle Class Really Exist?
2. Data that says if you live in a city and spend more than 6300 rs per month, you’re in the top 5% of the whole country
3. The quote from Macauley is from his Minute on Education
4. Joshi, Sanjay, ed. “Introduction.” In The Middle Class in Colonial India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2010.
5. Pandian, M. S. S. “One Step Outside Modernity: Caste, Identity Politics and Public Sphere.” Economic and Political Weekly 37, no. 18 (2002): 1735–41.
6. Cutts, Elmer H. “The Background of Macaulay’s Minute.” The American Historical Review 58, no. 4 (1953): 824.
7. Torri, Michelguglielmo. “Westernised Middle Class, Intellectuals and Society in Late Colonial India.” Economic and Political Weekly 25, no. 4 (Jan 27, 1990): 7–8.
8. Chatterjee, Partha. The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Princeton University Press, 1993.
9. Sarkar, Sumit. “Identity and Difference: Caste in the Formation of the Ideologies of Nationalism and Hindutva.” In Writing Social History. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
How The “General Category” Became Modern India’s Greatest Scam
Correction 1: In our section about the Mandal Comission’s population estimates, we said the Commission estimated that the OBC population was 56%. It’s actually 52%.
Correction 2: In the video, we quote a 2009 study as saying that applicants with upper caste names were twice as likely to get selected as applications with Dalit names. The original paper actually says the odds of a Dalit being called for an interview were 0.68 of the odds of an upper caste applicant. We regret the error. The full paper is accessible here: http://dalitstudies.org.in/download/wp/0901.pdf
7. Studies about caste discrimination in elite educational institutions:
8. For examples of violence against Dalits for riding horses, just google it.
9. Subramanian, Ajantha. 2019. The Caste of Merit: Engineering Education in India
10. Deshpande, Satish. “Towards a Biography of the ‘General Category.’” Economic & Political Weekly, no. 15, 2013. (Read our summary of the paper.)
11. Satyanarayana, K. 2014. “Dalit Reconfiguration of Caste: Representation, Identity and Politics,”Critical Quaterly 56 (3). 46–61
13. Ambedkar, BR. 1936. Annihilation of Caste
14. Galanter, Marc. 1984. Competing Equalities.
15. Omvedt, Gail. 1990. “Twice-Born Riot Against Democracy,” 1990
16. Roy, Rajat. 2020. “From Postcolonial Irony to Dalit Truth: A Perspective on Experience,” EPW
Why India Became Independent But Its Women Did not
5. Refashioning Mother India: Feminism and Nationalism in Late-Colonial India Author(s) – Mrinalini Sinha
6. Maps and Mother Goddesses in Modern India Author(s) – Sumathi Ramaswamy
7. A post-colonial patriarchy? Representing family in the Indian nation-state – Eleanor Newbigin
8. The Nationalist Resolution of the Women’s Question – Partha Chatterjee
9. Whatever happened to the Vedic Dasi – Orientalism, Nationalism, and a script for the past – Uma Chakravarthy
10. Law, custom, and statutory social reform: the Hindu Widows’ Remarriage Act of 1856 – Lucy Carroll
11. Contentious Traditions: The Debate on Sati in Colonial India – Lata Mani
British Rule Made India Poor. So Why Did It Make Some Indians Crazy Rich?
1. Colonialism and Indian Economy.
Author: Amiya Kumar Bagchi
Source: Oxford University Press, 2010.
2. From Little King to Landlord: Property, Law, and the Gift under the Madras Permanent Settlement
Author(s): Nicholas B. Dirks
Source: Comparative Studies in Society and History , Apr., 1986, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Apr., 1986), pp. 307-333
3. Zamindars under the Mughals
Author: S. Nurul Hasan
Source: Land Control and Social Structure in Indian History, edited by Robert E. Frykenberg
4. Impact of British Colonialism on Different Social Classes of Nineteenth-Century Madras Presidency
Author: K.A. Manikumar
Source: Social Scientist , May–June 2014, Vol. 42, No. 5/6 (May–June 2014), pp. 19-42
5. Dubashes of Madras
Author: Susan Neild-Basu
Source: Modern Asian Studies, Vol 18, No 1, 1984 pp 1-31
6. Trading Firms in Colonial India
Author: Tirthankar Roy
Source: The Business History Review , SPRING 2014, Vol. 88, No. 1, Business, Networks and the State in India, pp. 9-42
7. The Comprador Role of Parsi Seths, 1750-1850
Author: Amalendu Guha
Source: Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 5, no. 48, 1970, pp. 1933–36.
8. Sociologists and Inequality in India: The Historical Context
Author: Satish Sabherwal
Source: Economic and Political Weekly, Feb., 1979, Vol. 14, No. 7/8.
9. Capital and Crowd in a Declining Asian Port City: The Anglo-Bania Order and the Surat Riots of 1795.
Author: Lakshmi Subramanian
Source: Modern Asian Studies, vol. 19, no. 2, 1985, pp. 205–37.
10. For the Love of India: The Life and Times of Jamsetji Tata
Author: RM Lala
Source: Gardner Books, 2004.
11. The Anarchy: The East India Company, Corporate Violence, and the Pillage of an Empire
Author: William Dalrymple
Source: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2019.
How Indian Politics Uses Hindu vs Muslim To Cover Up Caste
1. William Gould. 2005: “Contesting secularism in colonial and postcolonial north India between the 1930 and 1950s”. Contemporary South Asia, 14-4, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09584930600839198.
2. Khalid Ansari, 2017, “Caste should be seen as the overarching category in Indian society: Khalid Anis Ansari,” Round Table India,
3. Papiya Ghosh. 1997, “Partition’s Biharis,” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, xv-2, Partition’s Biharis | Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East | Duke University Press (dukeupress.edu).
4. Ali Anwar, 2000, Masawat ki Jung, New Delhi: Vani Prakashan.
Nandini Gooptu, 2001, The Politics of the Urban Poor in Early Twentieth-Century India, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
5. Santosh Kumar Rai, 2012, “Muslim Weavers’ Politics in Early 20th Century Northern India,” Economic & Political Weekly, 47-15, https://www.epw.in/journal/2012/15/special-articles/muslim-weavers-politics-early-20th-century-northern-india.html
6. Data about Muslim employment and other indicators from Sachar Committee Report, 2006, https://minorityaffairs.gov.in/reports/sachar-committee-report
7. Khalid Ansari, 2018, Contesting Communalism in Prabuddha Journal. https://www.academia.edu/36719069/Contesting_Communalism_s_Preliminary_Reflections_on_Pasmanda_Muslim_Narratives_from_North_India
How Brahmins and the British Created India’s Hindu Majority
Sources (with timestamps)
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2. [1:15] Viswanathan, Gauri. “Colonialism and the Construction of Hinduism.” The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2003, pp. 23–44
3. [1:36] Thapar, Romila. “The Theory of Aryan Race and India: History and Politics.” Social Scientist, vol. 24, no. 1/3, 1996, pp. 3–29
4. [1:52] Jha, D. N. Rethinking Hindu Identity. Equinox Pub, 2009.
5. [2:39] Cohn, Bernard S. Law and the Colonial State in India. Cornell University Press, 2018
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7. [3:26] Cohn, Bernard S. Law and the Colonial State in India. Cornell University Press, 2018
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11. [5:50] Carroll, Lucy. “Law, Custom, and Statutory Social Reform: The Hindu Widows’ Remarriage Act of 1856.” The Indian Economic & Social History Review, vol. 20, no. 4, Dec. 1983, pp. 363–88
12. [7:26] Chakravarti, Uma. “Whatever Happened to the Vedic Dasi? Orientalism, Nationalism, and a Script for the Past.” Recasting Women: Essays in Indian Colonial History, edited by Kumkum Sangari and Sudesh Vaid, Rutgers University Press, 1990.
13. [8:10] Leopold, Joan. “British Applications of the Aryan Theory of Race to India, 1850-1870.” The English Historical Review, vol. 89, no. 352, 1974, pp. 578–603
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17. [9:13] Radhakrishnan, S. The Hindu View of Life. 2015. https://www.vifindia.org/sites/default/files/145639119-Hindu-View-of-Life-1927.pdf
18. [9:18] Tilak, Bal Gangadhar. The Arctic Home in the Vedas. 1903.
19. [9:35] Barrier, N. Gerald, and Kenneth Jones, editors. “Religious Identity and the Indian Census.” The Census in British India: New Perspectives, Manohar, 1981.
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24. [12:13] Census of India (Madras) Volume XIII Part 1. 1921, https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.55998/2015.55998.Census-Of-India-1921-Vol13-Madras-Pt1-report_djvu.txt.
25 [12:59] Census of India 1901 Volume 1 Part 1. 1901, http://piketty.pse.ens.fr/files/ideologie/data/CensusIndia/CensusIndia1901/CensusIndia1901IndiaReport.pdf.
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27. [13:20] Samarendra, Padmanabh. “Between Number and Knowledge: Career of Caste in Colonial Census.” Caste in History, edited by Ishita Banerjee-Dube, Oxford University Press, 2010.
28. [13:45, 14:20] Rai, Lajpat. Arya Samaj. 1915, http://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.530077.
29. [15:00] Jaffrelot, Christophe. India’s Silent Revolution: The Rise of the Lower Castes in North India. Columbia University Press, 2003.
30. [15:25] Omvedt, Gail (See 10:05)
31. [15:40] Ram, Kanshi. The Chamcha Age: Era of the Stooges. 1982, https://archive.org/details/TheChamchaAge.
31. [17:05] Jaffrelot, Christophe, and Prannv Dhawan. “Can BJP Balance Caste Aspirations of Voters with Its Core Hindutva Appeal?” The Indian Express, 21 Sept. 2021, https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/modi-government-caste-politics-hindutva-obc-reservation-7520075/.
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